The journal invites articles related to all aspects of Manuscripts are published in the following sections: Ageing, Allergy and Other Hypersensitivities, Antigen Recognition and Responses, Autoimmunity, Clinical and Human Immunology, Clinical Laboratory Immunology, HIV, Immune Regulation, Immune System Development, Immunodermatology, Immunogenetics, Immunohematology, Immunotherapy and Vaccines, Immunotoxicology, Infection and Immunity, Infectious Disease and Host Response, Innate Immunity and Inflammation, Molecular and Structural Immunology, Mucosal Immunity, Mucosal Immunology, Neuroimmunology, Novel Immunological Methods, Primary Immunodeficiency, Systems Immunology, Transplantation, Transplantation, Tumor Immunology, Vaccines and Microbiology divisions include Virology, Mycology, Parasitology, Bacteriology and other branches.
is the study of microorganisms which comprise of eukaryotes (fungi, protists) and prokaryotes (bacteria and algae). Microbiology is a subdivision of bacteriology
, parasitology and others. Microbiologists usually depend on tools of molecular biology like DNA sequence based identification i.e., 16s rRNA gene sequence is used for recognition of bacteria. Microbiology can be sub divided into various categories such as Microbial physiology and genetics, Veterinary microbiology, Industrial microbiology
, Aero Microbiology, Food Microbiology
is the branch of biology that deals with the study of immune system
. It is an essential branch of medical and biological sciences
. The immune system protects us from infection through numerous lines of defense. Improper functioning of immune system may result in diseases like pathology, hypersensitivity reaction and cancer. Many elements of the immune system
are usually cellular in nature and not related to any particular organ; however they are embedded or circulate in different tissues throughout the body.
can be identified when a wound swells up, becomes red and hurts. Normally inflammation is the response of immune system to stimulus. For instance, this might be bacteria colonizing a wound or a splinter piercing human finger. The immune system fighting against something harmful can be thought as the body infected by inflammation. Inflammation can be caused by bacteria, virus
, fungi, and external injuries. In general, Cystitis, Bronchitis, Otitis, Dermatitis, are the diseases that cause inflammation.
Allergies (or allergic diseases) are caused due to a numerous conditions such as hypersensitivity of the immune system to harmless elements in the environment. These diseases comprise of hay fever, food allergies, dermatitis, allergic asthma, and hypersensitivity reaction. Allergic symptoms can be red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Doctors utilize skin and blood tests for treating allergies
. Treatments include medicines, allergy shots, and avoiding the materials that cause the reactions.
is the remedy for any disease by stimulating or suppressing the immune system. Activation immunotherapies are developed and designed to amplify an immune response whereas suppression immunotherapies
suppresses the response. In recent years, immunotherapy has become of great interest to researchers, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies, particularly in its promise to treat various types of cancer.
is a surgical procedure in a living being in which a body tissue or organ is transferred from one part of the body to another. Heart, lung, liver, kidney, corneal, and bone-marrow transplants are performed to treat life-threatening illness. In order to prevent the immunological rejection, donated tissue or organ must be histocompatible with that of the recipient.
are macromolecules in cells which function as catalysts. Enzymes enhance the chemical reactions in the body, however doesn’t get ran down within the method. All biochemical reactions in living creatures require enzymes and the chemical reactions function much faster with enzymes. The substances at the beginning of the reaction are called substrates and those at the end of reaction are known as products.
(DNA) is a molecule made of nucleotides that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.
is the branch of biology involved with the study of fungi, together with their properties of genetic and organic chemistry, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a supply for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, yet their dangers, like toxicity or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is known as mycologist. Mycology branches into the area of phytopathology (study of plant diseases). Mycology and phytopathology are closely related due to the large majority of plant pathogens are fungi.
is the study of parasites, their hosts, and also the relationship between them. As biological discipline, the scope of parasitology is not determined by the organism or environment in question but by their way of life. This means it forms a synthesis of alternative disciplines, and draws on techniques from fields like cell biology, bioinformatics
, molecular biology, immunology, genetics, evolution and ecology.
is the alteration (permanent) of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic components. Mutation is resulted from errors during DNA duplication or any kind of damage to DNA, which then may undergo error-prone repair, or cause an error during other forms of repair, or else may cause an error during replication. Mutations
can also be resulted from insertion or deletion of DNA components due to moving genetic elements. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological processes including evolution, cancer
, and junctional diversity.
The human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV) is a lentivirus that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS
is a situation in humans in which continuous failure of the immune system permits life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. The average survival time for a HIV infected person is estimated to be 9 to 11 years without treatment (depends on HIV subtype). In most situations, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. Non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant during pregnancy, during childbirth by exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid, and through breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.
is the study of insects. In the past the term "insect" was imprecise, and traditionally the definition of entomology enclosed the study of terrestrial animals in different arthropod teams or different phyla, like arachnids, myriapods, earthworms, land snails, and slugs. Like many of the other areas that are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category; any variety of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect-related inquiries is entomology. Entomology overlaps with a cross-section of topics as varied as genetics science, behavior, biomechanics, organic chemistry, systematics, physiology, biological process, ecology
, morphology, and paleontology.
also called neurobiology is the study of nervous system. It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology, which combines physiology, anatomy
, molecular biology, biological science, cytology, mathematical modeling and psychology
to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons and neural circuits. The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to incorporate different methods used to study the nervous system at the various scales and the techniques employed by neuroscientists have distended enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory and motor tasks within the brain. Neuroscience has additionally given rise to such alternative disciplines as neuroeducation, neuroethics, and neurolaw.
is the study of science that deals with the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is a complete set of DNA of an organism. Genetics refer to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance whereas genomics is the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which directs the protein production with the help of enzymes. Genomics involves the sequencing and examination of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the performance and structure of entire genomes. Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based analysis and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the foremost complicated biological systems like the brain.
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Lecturer of Internal Medicine and Clinical Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt